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Vaccines & Immunization

Vaccines & Immunization Photo

As of 2011, the only available vaccine is Bacillus Calmette-GuĂ©rin (BCG), is a vaccine for (TB) tuberculosis disease. Many people have been BCG-vaccinated. BCG is primarily used as vaccine in many countries with a high aid for preventing TB as childhood tuberculous meningitis and miliary disease. Tuberculosis can be treated by taking several drugs for 6 to 9 months.  There are 10 drugs presently approved by FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) for treating TB. Out of the approved drugs, the first-line anti-TB agents that form the basis of treatment regimens include: isoniazid, pyrazinamide rifampin, ethambutol, streptomycin. Once the TB patient is known to be fully susceptible to ethambutol or streptomycin, it can be discontinued.

Directly observed therapy (DOT) is mainly recommended for all the patients. With DOT treatment, patients with the above regimens can shift to 2 to 3 times per week dosage after an initial 2 weeks of daily dosing. Patients on twice-weekly dosing should not miss any doses. Require daily therapy for patients on self-administered medication.

  • BCG vaccination
  • Immune responses
  • Drug therapy
  • DOT treatment
  • Monitoring DOTS, and DOTS-Plus
  • Development of drugs, that do not induce hepatitis

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