Causes of Tuberculosis

Causes of Tuberculosis Photo

TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a small, aerobic, non-motile bacillus. TB is widespread, deadly and causes the highest number of deaths worldwide. One third of the global population has latent TB infection. Bacteria usually attack lungs. But, TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the spine, brain and kidney. Symptoms for TB infection vary according to the organs involved, tuberculosis in kidneys causes blood in urine while, tuberculosis of spine may cause back pain.

Latent TB: This condition of TB infection, in which the bacteria remain in an inactive state and cause no symptoms. It is also called inactive TB or TB infection, isn't contagious, but can turn into active TB, so treatment is mandatory for the person with latent TB and to help limit the spread of TB.

Active TB: Active TB is highly contagious and can spread to others. It may occur in the first few weeks after infection with the bacteria or it might occur years later.

The M. tuberculosis complex includes four other TB-causing mycobacterial species:

·         M. bovis: It was once a common cause of tuberculosis, but the awakening of pasteurized milk has almost completely eradicated as a public health issue in developed countries.

·         M. africanum: It is not widespread, but it is a significant cause of tuberculosis in parts of Africa. 

·         M. canetti: It is rare and seems to be limited to the Horn of Africa, although a couple of cases have been seen in African emigrants. 

·         M. microti.  It is also rare and is seen only in immunodeficient people, although its utility may be significantly underestimated.

·         M. pinnipedii: is also called as the seal bacillus for causing TB in fish-eating sea animal and on very rare occasions these pathogens were found to cause TB in humans. 
 

Other known pathogenic mycobacteria include M. lepraeM. kansasii. and M. avium. The latter two species are classified as "Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria". NTM neither causes leprosy nor TB, but cause a pulmonary disease that resembles TB.

  • M. bovis
  • M. africanum
  • M. canetti
  • M. microti.
  • M. pinnipedii

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Cancellation, Postponement and Transfer of Registration

All cancellations or modifications of registration must be made in writing to finance@conferenceseries.com 



Cancellation Policy

If Allied Academies cancels this event for any reason, you will receive a credit for 100% of the registration fee paid. You may use this credit for another Conference Series/OMICS International event which must occur within one year from the date of cancellation.

Postponement

 

If Allied Academies postpones an event for any reason and you are unable or unwilling to attend on rescheduled dates, you will receive a credit for 100% of the registration fee paid. You may use this credit for another event which must occur within one year from the date of postponement.

 

Transfer of registration

 

All fully paid registrations are transferable to other persons from the same organization, if registered person is unable to attend the event. Transfers must be made by the registered person in writing to finance@conferenceseries.com . Details must be included the full name of replacement person, their title, contact phone number and email address. All other registration details will be assigned to the new person unless otherwise specified.

Registration can be transferred to one conference to another conference of Allied Academies if the person is unable to attend one of conferences.

However, Registration cannot be transferred if it is intimated within 14 days of respective conference.

The transferred registrations will not be eligible for Refund.

 

Visa Information

Keeping in view of increased security measures, we would like to request all the participants to apply for Visa as soon as possible.

Allied Academies will not directly contact embassies and consulates on behalf of visa applicants. All delegates or invitees should apply for Business Visa only.

Important note for failed visa applications: Visa issues cannot come under the consideration of cancellation policy of Allied Academies, including the inability to obtain a visa.

Refund Policy

If the registrant is unable to attend, and is not in a position to transfer his/her participation to another person or event, then the following refund arrangements apply:

Keeping in view of advance payments towards Venue, Printing, Shipping, Hotels and other overheads, we had to keep Refund Policy is as following slabs-

  • Before 60 days of the conference: Eligible for Full Refund less $100 service Fee
  • Within 60-30 days of Conference: Eligible for 50% of payment Refund
  • Within 30 days of Conference: Not eligible for Refund
  • E-Poster Payments will not be refunded.

Accommodation Cancellation Policy

 

Accommodation Providers (Hotels) have their own cancellation policies, and they generally apply when cancellations are made less than 30 days prior to arrival. Please contact us as soon as possible, if you wish to cancel or amend your accommodation. Allied Academies will advise the cancellation policy of your accommodation provider, prior to cancelling or amending your booking, to ensure you are fully aware of any non-refundable deposits.

 

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