Currently tuberculosis (TB) control methods, does not effectively block transmission of TB, and do not include a competent vaccine. Research studies show the mass vaccination campaigns using new vaccines could prevent14.5 million deaths from 2015 and 85.9 million new cases through 2050 in southern Asia alone. After many years, it now includes 7 vaccine candidates that are being tested in humans. Two non-replicating viral vectored vaccines have very recently entered the first phase IIb efficacy trial in infants (the first such trial in 80 years) and in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. Science is improving, but the scientific advancements need to be guided by political mobilization to ensure that the resources are available to produce, manufacture, and distribute the new vaccines and thus, save billions of lives throughout the world. Researchers are utilizing information retrieved from the entire sequence from the genome of M. tuberculosis and from new genetic & physiological methods to identify targets in M. tuberculosis that will aid in the development of these greatly needed antitubercular agents.
Goals of TB therapy:
1. Simplify and shorten the treatment of latent, active, drug-sensitive TB
2. Improve efficiency, safety and shorten duration of therapy for drug-resistant disease.
3. Develop drugs for those with TB who are co-infected with HIV that can be readily given with ARVs.