Virulence of M.Tuberculosis

Virulence of M.Tuberculosis Photo

When the mycobacteria reach the pulmonary alveoli, TB infection begins. The bacteria start invading and replicating within endosomes of alveolar macrophages. Macrophages analyse the bacterium as foreign and try to eliminate the bacteria by phagocytosis. During this process, the mycobacterium is surrounded by the macrophage and placed impermanently in a membrane-bound vesicle called phagosome. The phagosome then associates with lysosome to form phagolysosome. In the phagolysosome, the cell intends to use acid and reactive oxygen species to kill the bacterium. However, M. tuberculosis has a broad, waxy coating of mycolic acid that protects the cell from these toxic substances. M. tuberculosis has the ability to multiply and reproduce inside the macrophage until they burst the macrophage and will finally kill the immune cell, which leads to further infection.

 The primary site of infection in lungs, is known as the "Ghon focus", is either located in the lower part of the upper lobe or in the upper part of the lower lobe. Infection through the blood stream may also cause, tuberculosis of the lungs. This is known as Simon focus and is generally found in the upper part of the lungs. The hematogenous transmission may also spread infection to other sites, such as the brain, kidneys, peripheral lymph nodes, and to the bones. Other parts of the body may also be affected by the disease, it may rarely affect the pancreas, heart, thyroid or skeletal muscles.

  • Multipication of Tubercle bacilli in the alveoli.
  • Host immunosurveillance by CD4+ T cells
  • Caseous necrosis
  • Bacilli from blood stream reaches tissues and then to organs
  • Expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-I) proteins

Are you interested in

Terms and Conditions

Cancellation, Postponement and Transfer of Registration

All cancellations or modifications of registration must be made in writing to 

Cancellation Policy

If Allied Academies cancels this event for any reason, you will receive a credit for 100% of the registration fee paid. You may use this credit for another Conference Series/OMICS International event which must occur within one year from the date of cancellation.



If Allied Academies postpones an event for any reason and you are unable or unwilling to attend on rescheduled dates, you will receive a credit for 100% of the registration fee paid. You may use this credit for another event which must occur within one year from the date of postponement.


Transfer of registration


All fully paid registrations are transferable to other persons from the same organization, if registered person is unable to attend the event. Transfers must be made by the registered person in writing to . Details must be included the full name of replacement person, their title, contact phone number and email address. All other registration details will be assigned to the new person unless otherwise specified.

Registration can be transferred to one conference to another conference of Allied Academies if the person is unable to attend one of conferences.

However, Registration cannot be transferred if it is intimated within 14 days of respective conference.

The transferred registrations will not be eligible for Refund.


Visa Information

Keeping in view of increased security measures, we would like to request all the participants to apply for Visa as soon as possible.

Allied Academies will not directly contact embassies and consulates on behalf of visa applicants. All delegates or invitees should apply for Business Visa only.

Important note for failed visa applications: Visa issues cannot come under the consideration of cancellation policy of Allied Academies, including the inability to obtain a visa.

Refund Policy

If the registrant is unable to attend, and is not in a position to transfer his/her participation to another person or event, then the following refund arrangements apply:

Keeping in view of advance payments towards Venue, Printing, Shipping, Hotels and other overheads, we had to keep Refund Policy is as following slabs-

  • Before 60 days of the conference: Eligible for Full Refund less $100 service Fee
  • Within 60-30 days of Conference: Eligible for 50% of payment Refund
  • Within 30 days of Conference: Not eligible for Refund
  • E-Poster Payments will not be refunded.

Accommodation Cancellation Policy


Accommodation Providers (Hotels) have their own cancellation policies, and they generally apply when cancellations are made less than 30 days prior to arrival. Please contact us as soon as possible, if you wish to cancel or amend your accommodation. Allied Academies will advise the cancellation policy of your accommodation provider, prior to cancelling or amending your booking, to ensure you are fully aware of any non-refundable deposits.


Copyright © 2017-2018 Allied Academies, All Rights Reserved.